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100 posts on "Pandemic"

May 20, 2021

Consumer Credit Demand, Supply, and Unmet Need during the Pandemic



Consumer Credit Demand, Supply, and Unmet Need during the Pandemic

It is common during recessions to observe significant slowdowns in credit flows to consumers. It is more difficult to establish how much of these declines are the consequence of a decrease in credit demand versus a tightening in supply. In this post, we draw on survey data to examine how consumer credit demand and supply have changed since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The evidence reveals a clear initial decline and recent rebound in consumer credit demand. We also observe a modest but persistent tightening in credit supply during the pandemic, especially for credit cards. Mortgage refinance applications are the main exception to this general pattern, showing a steep increase in demand and some easing in availability. Despite tightened standards, we find no evidence of a meaningful increase in unmet credit need.

Continue reading "Consumer Credit Demand, Supply, and Unmet Need during the Pandemic" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Credit, Mortgages, Pandemic | Permalink | Comments (0)

May 19, 2021

What’s Next for Forborne Borrowers?



Editor’s note: When this post was first published, the average credit score increase for mortgage borrowers who took forbearance was misstated; the post has been corrected to reflect the correct figure of 14 points. (May 19, 1pm)

What’s Next for Forborne Borrowers?

We’ve spent the first three posts of this series discussing who has entered mortgage forbearance, and how their personal finances have developed during the course of the pandemic. In this fourth and final post, we will use Consumer Credit Panel (CCP) data to examine the profiles of those who remain in forbearance and those who have exited, and how the performance of household credit may evolve as the force of the pandemic begins to ebb and the economy reopens and normalizes.

Continue reading "What’s Next for Forborne Borrowers?" »

Posted by Blog Author at 11:48 AM in Pandemic | Permalink | Comments (0)

Keeping Borrowers Current in a Pandemic



Keeping Borrowers Current in a Pandemic

Federal government actions in response to the pandemic have taken many forms. One set of policies is intended to reduce the risk that the pandemic will result in a housing market crash and a wave of foreclosures like the one that accompanied the Great Financial Crisis. An important and novel tool employed as part of these policies is mortgage forbearance, which provides borrowers the option to pause or reduce debt service payments during periods of hardship, without marking the loan delinquent on the borrower’s credit report. Widespread take-up of forbearance over the past year has significantly changed the housing finance system in the United States, in different ways for different borrowers. This post is the first of four focusing attention on the effects of mortgage forbearance and the outlook for the mortgage market. Here we use data from the New York Fed’s Consumer Credit Panel (CCP) to examine the effects of these changes on households during the pandemic.

Continue reading "Keeping Borrowers Current in a Pandemic" »

May 13, 2021

Who’s Ready to Spend? Constrained Consumption across the Income Distribution



Who’s Ready to Spend? Constrained Consumption across the Income Distribution

Spending on goods and services that were constrained during the pandemic is expected to grow at a fast pace as the economy reopens. In this post, we look at detailed spending data to track which consumption categories were the most constrained by the pandemic due to social distancing. We find that, in 2019, high-income households typically spent relatively more on these pandemic-constrained goods and services. Our findings suggest that these consumers may have strongly reduced consumption during the pandemic and will likely play a crucial role in unleashing pent-up demand when pandemic restrictions ease.

Continue reading "Who’s Ready to Spend? Constrained Consumption across the Income Distribution" »

Racial and Income Gaps in Consumer Spending following COVID-19



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This post is the first in a two-part series that seeks to understand whether consumer spending patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic evolved differentially across counties by race and income. As the pandemic hit and social distancing restrictions were put into place in March 2020, consumer spending plummeted. Subsequently, as social distancing restrictions began to be relaxed later in spring 2020, consumer spending started to rebound. We find that higher-income counties had a considerably steeper decline and a shallower recovery than low-income counties did. The differences by race were also sizeable as the pandemic struck but became considerably more muted after summer of 2020. The decline and the recovery until the end of summer were sharper for majority-minority (MM) than majority nonminority (MNM) counties, while both sets of counties showed similar growth in spending after that. The second post in this series highlights the goods and services that were most adversely affected (or “constrained”) by the pandemic. Then, differentiating households by income, that post explores which households were more exposed to these pandemic-constrained expenditure categories.

Continue reading "Racial and Income Gaps in Consumer Spending following COVID-19" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Demographics, Household, Household Finance, Pandemic | Permalink | Comments (0)

May 12, 2021

Credit Card Balance Declines Are Largest Among Older, Wealthier Borrowers



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Total household debt rose by $85 billion in the first quarter of 2021, according to the latest Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit from the New York Fed’s Center for Microeconomic Data. Since the start of the pandemic, household debt balances have increased in every quarter but one—the second quarter of 2020, when lockdowns were in full effect. The Quarterly Report and this analysis are based on the New York Fed's Consumer Credit Panel, which is drawn from anonymized Equifax credit data.

Continue reading "Credit Card Balance Declines Are Largest Among Older, Wealthier Borrowers" »

Posted by Blog Author at 11:00 AM in Credit, Household, Household Finance, Pandemic | Permalink | Comments (0)

May 10, 2021

Women’s Labor Force Participation Was Rising to Record Highs—Until the Pandemic Hit



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Women’s labor force participation grew precipitously in the latter half of the 20th century, but by around the year 2000, that progress had stalled. In fact, the labor force participation rate for prime-age women (those aged 25 to 54) fell four percentage points between 2000 and 2015, breaking a decades-long trend. However, as the labor market gained traction in the aftermath of the Great Recession, more women were drawn into the labor force. In less than five years, between 2015 and early 2020, women’s labor force participation had recovered nearly all of the ground lost over the prior fifteen years. Then the pandemic hit, erasing these gains. In recent months, as the economy has begun to heal, women’s labor force participation has increased again, but there is much ground to be made up, especially for Black and Hispanic women. A strong labor market with rising wages, as was the case in the years leading up to the pandemic, will be instrumental in bringing more women back into the labor force.

Continue reading "Women’s Labor Force Participation Was Rising to Record Highs—Until the Pandemic Hit" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Demographics, Employment, Human Capital, Labor Market, Pandemic, Wages | Permalink | Comments (0)

May 05, 2021

Many Small Businesses in the Services Sector Are Unlikely to Reopen



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The services sector was hit hard during the COVID-19 pandemic. Small businesses were particularly affected, and many of them were forced to close. We examine the state of these firms using micro data from Homebase (HB), a scheduling and time tracking tool that is used by around 100,000 businesses, mostly small firms, in the leisure and hospitality and retail industries. The data reveal that 35 percent of businesses that were active prior to the pandemic are still closed and that most have been inactive for twenty weeks or longer. We estimate that each additional week of being closed reduces the probability that a business reopens by 2 percentage points. Moreover, an additional week of business closure lowers the share of workers that are rehired at reopening. Our estimates imply that only about 4 percent of the workers that are still laid off from the currently closed businesses will eventually be rehired by these businesses.

Continue reading "Many Small Businesses in the Services Sector Are Unlikely to Reopen" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Labor Market, Pandemic | Permalink | Comments (0)

May 03, 2021

Endogenous Supply Chains, Productivity, and COVID-19



LSE_2021_supply-chains_azar_460

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many industries adapted to new social distancing guidelines by adopting new technologies, providing protective equipment for their employees, and digitizing their methods of production. These changes in industries’ supply chains, together with monetary and fiscal stimulus, contributed to dampening the economic impact of COVID-19 over time. In this post, I discuss a new framework that analyzes how changes in supply chains can drive economic growth in the long run and mitigate recessions in the short run.

Continue reading "Endogenous Supply Chains, Productivity, and COVID-19" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Macroecon, Pandemic, Recession | Permalink | Comments (0)

April 14, 2021

What Is behind the Global Jump in Personal Saving during the Pandemic?



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Household saving has soared in the United States and other high-income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite widespread declines in wages and other private income streams. This post highlights the role of fiscal policy in driving the saving boom, through stepped-up social benefits and other income support measures. Indeed, in the United States, Japan, and Canada, government assistance has pushed household income above its pre-pandemic trajectory. We argue that the larger scale of government assistance in these countries helps explain why saving in these countries has risen more strongly than in the euro area. Going forward, how freely households spend out of their newly accumulated savings will be a key factor determining the strength of economic recoveries.

Continue reading "What Is behind the Global Jump in Personal Saving during the Pandemic?" »

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Liberty Street Economics features insight and analysis from New York Fed economists working at the intersection of research and policy. Launched in 2011, the blog takes its name from the Bank’s headquarters at 33 Liberty Street in Manhattan’s Financial District.

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