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80 posts on "Banks"

November 13, 2019

The Side Effects of Shadow Banking on Liquidity Provision



Correction: When this post was first published, line labels in the panel showing Tier 1 capital ratios were reversed; the labels have been corrected. (November 13, 10:40 a.m.)

The Side Effects of Shadow Banking on Liquidity Provision

Over the past two decades, the growth of shadow banking has transformed the way the U.S. banking system funds corporations. In this post, we describe how this growth has affected both the term loan and credit line businesses, and how the changes have resulted in a reduction in the liquidity insurance provided to firms.

Continue reading "The Side Effects of Shadow Banking on Liquidity Provision" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Banks, Financial Institutions, Liquidity | Permalink | Comments (1)

September 23, 2019

Once Upon a Time in the Banking Sector: Historical Insights into Banking Competition



Once Upon a Time in the Banking Sector: Historical Insights into Banking Competition


How does competition among banks affect credit growth and real economic growth? In addition, how does it affect financial stability? In this blog post, we derive insights into this important set of questions from novel data on the U.S. banking system during the nineteenth century.

Continue reading "Once Upon a Time in the Banking Sector: Historical Insights into Banking Competition" »

July 17, 2019

How Do Large Banks Manage Their Cash?



Second of two posts
How Do Large Banks Manage Their Cash?

As the aggregate supply of reserves shrinks and large banks implement liquidity regulations, they may follow a variety of liquidity management strategies depending on their business models and the interest rate differences between alternative liquid instruments. For example, the banks may continue to hold large amounts of excess reserves or shift to Treasury or agency securities or shrink their balance sheets. In this post, we provide new evidence on how large banks have managed their cash, which is the largest component of reserves, on a daily basis since the implementation of liquidity regulations.

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Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Banks, Federal Reserve, Liquidity, Regulation, Repo, Treasury | Permalink | Comments (2)

July 15, 2019

Large Bank Cash Balances and Liquidity Regulations



Update (9 a.m.): An earlier version of this post transposed line labels in the first figure. The error has been corrected.

First of two posts
Large Bank Cash Balances and Liquidity Regulations

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has recently communicated its aim to continue implementing monetary policy in a regime that maintains an ample supply of reserves, though with a significantly lower level of reserves than has prevailed in recent years. The liquidity needs of the largest U.S. commercial banks play an important role in understanding the banking system’s appetite for actual reserve holdings, which we refer to as bank reserve demand. In this post, we discuss the recent evolution of large bank cash balances and the effect of liquidity regulations on these balances. In part two of this series, we provide new evidence on how the largest banks manage their liquidity needs on a daily basis.

Continue reading "Large Bank Cash Balances and Liquidity Regulations" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Banks, Federal Reserve, Fire Sale, Liquidity, Regulation | Permalink | Comments (1)

July 08, 2019

From Policy Rates to Market Rates—Untangling the U.S. Dollar Funding Market



From Policy Rates to Market Rates—Untangling the U.S. Dollar Funding Market

How do changes in the rate that the Federal Reserve pays on reserves held by depository institutions affect rates in money markets in which the Fed does not participate? Through which channels do changes in the so-called administered rates reach rates in onshore and offshore U.S. dollar money markets? In this post, we answer these questions with the help of an interactive map that guides us through the web of interconnected relationships between the Fed, key market players, and the various instruments in the U.S. dollar funding market, highlighting the linkages across the short-term financial products that form this market.

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Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Banks, Central Bank, Fed Funds, Federal Reserve, Monetary Policy, Repo | Permalink | Comments (5)

June 26, 2019

How Large Are Default Spillovers in the U.S. Financial System?



Second of two posts
How Large Are Default Spillovers in the U.S. Financial System?

When a financial firm suffers sufficiently high losses, it might default on its counterparties, who may in turn become unable to pay their own creditors, and so on. This “domino” or “cascade” effect can quickly propagate through the financial system, creating undesirable spillovers and unnecessary defaults. In this post, we use the framework that we discussed in “Assessing Contagion Risk in a Financial Network,” the first part of this two-part series, to answer the question: How vulnerable is the U.S. financial system to default spillovers?

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June 24, 2019

Assessing Contagion Risk in a Financial Network



First of two posts
Assessing Contagion Risk in a Financial Network


In compiling a list of key takeaways of the 2008 financial crisis, surely the dangers of counterparty risk would be near the top. During the crisis, speculation on which financial institution would be next to default on its obligations to creditors, and which one would come after that, dominated news cycles. Since then, there has been an explosion in research trying to understand and quantify the default spillovers that can arise through counterparty risk. This is the first of two posts delving into the analysis of financial network contagion through this spillover channel. Here we introduce a framework that is useful for thinking about default cascades, originally developed by Eisenberg and Noe.

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May 29, 2019

Is There Too Much Business Debt?



Is There Too Much Business Debt?

By many measures nonfinancial corporate debt has been increasing as a share of GDP and assets since 2010. As the May Federal Reserve Financial Stability Report explained, high business debt can be a financial stability risk because heavily indebted corporations may need to cut back spending more sharply when shocks occur. Further, when businesses cannot repay their loans, financial institutions and investors incur losses. In this post, we review measures of corporate leverage in the United States. Although corporate debt has soared, concerns about debt growth are mitigated in part by higher corporate cash flows.

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Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Banks, Corporate Finance, Credit, Financial Intermediation | Permalink | Comments (10)

May 17, 2019

Understanding Cyber Risk: Lessons from a Recent Fed Workshop



Understanding Cyber Risk: Lessons from a Recent Fed Workshop

Cyber risk poses a major threat to financial stability, yet financial institutions still lack consensus on the definition of and terminology around cyber risk and have no common framework for confronting these hazards. This impedes efforts to measure and manage such risk, diminishing institutions’ individual and collective readiness to handle system-level cyber threats. In this blog post, we describe the proceedings of a recent workshop where leading risk managers, academics, and policy makers gathered to discuss proposals for countering cyber risk. This workshop is part of a joint two-phase initiative run by the Federal Reserve Banks of Richmond and New York and the Fed’s Board of Governors to harmonize cyber risk identification, classification, and measurement practices.

Continue reading "Understanding Cyber Risk: Lessons from a Recent Fed Workshop" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Banks, Central Bank, Federal Reserve, Systemic Risk | Permalink | Comments (0)

May 08, 2019

Ten Years Later—Did QE Work?



Ten Years Later—Did QE Work?


By November 2008, the Global Financial Crisis, which originated in the residential housing market and the shadow banking system, had begun to turn into a major recession, spurring the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) to initiate what we now refer to as quantitative easing (QE). In this blog post, we draw upon the empirical findings of post-crisis academic research–including our own work–to shed light on the question: Did QE work?

Continue reading "Ten Years Later—Did QE Work?" »

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Liberty Street Economics features insight and analysis from New York Fed economists working at the intersection of research and policy. Launched in 2011, the blog takes its name from the Bank’s headquarters at 33 Liberty Street in Manhattan’s Financial District.

The editors are Michael Fleming, Andrew Haughwout, Thomas Klitgaard, and Asani Sarkar, all economists in the Bank’s Research Group.

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