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182 posts on "Financial Markets"

May 24, 2017

Dealer Balance Sheets and Corporate Bond Liquidity Provision



Dealer Balance Sheets and Corporate Bond Liquidity Provision

Regulatory reforms since the financial crisis have sought to make the financial system safer and severe financial crises less likely. But by limiting the ability of regulated institutions to increase their balance sheet size, reforms—such as the Dodd-Frank Act in the United States and the Basel Committee's Basel III bank regulations internationally—might reduce the total intermediation capacity of the financial system during normal times. Decreases in intermediation capacity may then lead to decreased liquidity in markets in which the regulated institutions intermediate significant trading activity. While recent commentary by market participants claims that this is indeed the case—Wall Street Journal article [subscription required] notes that “[t]hree-quarters of institutional bond investors say that liquidity provided by bond dealers has declined in the past year...”—empirical studies have struggled to find evidence supporting this narrative. In this post, we summarize the findings of our recent article in the Journal of Monetary Economics that addresses the apparent disconnect between the market-participant commentary and the empirical evidence by focusing on the relationship between bond-level liquidity and financial institutions’ balance sheet constraints.

Continue reading "Dealer Balance Sheets and Corporate Bond Liquidity Provision" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Dealers, Financial Institutions, Financial Markets | Permalink | Comments (0)

May 12, 2017

At the N.Y. Fed: The Evolution of OTC Derivatives Markets



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The 2007-09 financial crisis highlighted weaknesses in the over‑the‑counter (OTC) derivatives markets and the increased risk of contagion due to the interconnectedness of market participants in these markets. As a response, the global regulatory community introduced a number of reforms to both the market structure and the regulatory environment. The intent of these innovations was to improve the functioning of OTC markets but some market participants have suggested that some of the new regulations may have had unintended consequences. In this post, we discuss some key takeaways from a recent two-day conference on “Over‑the‑Counter Derivatives and Recent Regulatory Changes,” where policymakers, academics, practitioners, and other experts convened to discuss the evolution of OTC derivatives markets after the crisis.

Continue reading "At the N.Y. Fed: The Evolution of OTC Derivatives Markets" »

January 18, 2017

Advent of Trade Reporting for U.S. Treasury Securities



Greater transparency is coming to the U.S. Treasury securities market. Members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) will be required to report their trades in Treasuries using FINRA’s Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine (TRACE) starting July 10, 2017. Although initial collection efforts are focused on providing such data to the official sector, the public will likely have access in the future. In this post, I discuss the motivation for such reporting, how it came to be decided on, and the evidence from the corporate bond market on how public access to such data affects trading costs.

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Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Financial Markets | Permalink | Comments (0)

January 11, 2017

Credit Market Arbitrage and Regulatory Leverage



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In a companion post, we examined the recent trends in arbitraged-based measures of liquidity in the cash bond and credit default swap (CDS) markets. In this post, we turn to the mechanics of the CDS-bond arbitrage trade and explore how the costs and profitability of such trades might be affected by the finalization of the supplementary leverage ratio (SLR) rule in September 2014.

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Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Financial Markets | Permalink | Comments (1)

January 09, 2017

Trends in Arbitrage-Based Measures of Bond Liquidity



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Corporate bonds are an important source of funding for public corporations in the United States. When these bonds cannot be easily traded in secondary markets or when investors cannot easily hedge their bond positions in derivatives markets, the issuance costs to corporations increase, leading to higher overall funding costs. In this post, we examine recent trends in arbitrage-based measures of liquidity in corporate bond and credit default swap (CDS) markets and evaluate potential explanations for the deterioration in these measures that occurred between the middle of 2015 and early 2016.

Continue reading "Trends in Arbitrage-Based Measures of Bond Liquidity" »

Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Financial Markets, Regulation, Treasury | Permalink | Comments (1)

December 20, 2016

At the N.Y. Fed: Capital Flows, Policy Dilemmas, and the Future of Global Financial Integration



LSE_At the N.Y. Fed: Capital Flows, Policy Dilemmas, and the Future of Global Financial Integration

The New York Fed recently hosted the third biannual Global Research Forum on International Macroeconomics and Finance, an event organized in conjunction with the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Federal Reserve Board. Bringing together a diverse group of academics, policymakers, and market participants, the two-day conference (November 17-18) was aimed at promoting discussion of frontier research on empirical and theoretical issues in international finance, banking, and open-economy macroeconomics. Understanding the drivers and implications of international capital flows was a major area of focus, along with the policy challenges posed by global financial integration.

Continue reading "At the N.Y. Fed: Capital Flows, Policy Dilemmas, and the Future of Global Financial Integration" »

December 05, 2016

Are All CLOs Equal?



Asset securitization is an important source of corporate funding in capital markets. Collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) are securitization structures that allow syndicated bank lenders and bond underwriters to repackage business loans and sell them to investors as securities. CLOs are actively overseen by a collateral manager that has the responsibility to trade loans in the portfolio to benefit from gains and mitigate losses from credit exposures. Because CLOs include a diverse portfolio of loans, a single firm that commingles its lending role with the collateral management role can reap information advantages stemming from its “originate-to-distribute” activities.

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Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Financial Institutions, Financial Markets, Regulation | Permalink | Comments (3)

December 02, 2016

At the N.Y. Fed: Second Annual Conference on the Evolving Structure of the U.S. Treasury Market



LSE_Second Annual Conference on the Evolving Structure of the U.S. Treasury Market

The New York Fed recently hosted a second conference on the evolving structure of the Treasury market, co-sponsored with the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the Federal Reserve Board, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). The conference reviewed developments in the Treasury market since the Joint Staff Report on the “flash rally” of October 15, 2014, and the preceding year’s conference on the evolving structure of the Treasury market, including advances related to transaction data reporting and official perspectives on rules and regulations.

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Posted by Blog Author at 7:00 AM in Financial Markets | Permalink | Comments (1)

November 18, 2016

The Final Crisis Chronicle: The Panic of 1907 and the Birth of the Fed



LSE_The Final Crisis Chronicle: The Panic of 1907 and the Birth of the Fed

The panic of 1907 was among the most severe we’ve covered in our series and also the most transformative, as it led to the creation of the Federal Reserve System. Also known as the “Knickerbocker Crisis,” the panic of 1907 shares features with the 2007-08 crisis, including “shadow banks” in the form high-flying, less-regulated trusts operating beyond the safety net of the time, and a pivotal “Lehman moment” when Knickerbocker Trust, the second-largest trust in the country, was allowed to fail after J.P. Morgan refused to save it.

Continue reading "The Final Crisis Chronicle: The Panic of 1907 and the Birth of the Fed" »

November 09, 2016

Performance Bonds for Bankers: Taking Aim at Misconduct



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Given the long list of problems that have emerged in banks over the past several years, it is time to consider performance bonds for bankers. Performance bonds are used to ensure that appropriate actions are taken by a party when monitoring or enforcement is expensive. A simple example is a security deposit on an apartment rental. The risk of losing the deposit motivates renters to take care of the apartment, relieving the landlord of the need to monitor the premises. Although not quite as simple as a security deposit, performance bonds for bankers could provide more incentive for bankers to take better care of our financial system.

Continue reading "Performance Bonds for Bankers: Taking Aim at Misconduct" »

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